Acid pollution in the residential streets of Mandoli, a slum on the outskirts of Delhi. Acid is used to soak computer parts in order to recover valuable metals. When the process is over, the used acid is poured onto streets and into rivers and waterways by the yard workers causing pollution on a massive scale. Image from the series E-wasteland © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved.

E-Wasteland

Mixed computer scrap in a recycling yard. E-waste enters India as scrap metal, scrap plastic and also sometimes as charity donations. In reality much of the import is unusable and goes straight from the port to the scrap heap. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved.

Mixed computer scrap in a recycling yard. E-waste enters India as scrap metal, scrap plastic and also sometimes as charity donations. In reality much of the import is unusable and goes straight from the port to the scrap heap. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved.

 

A boy looks out over a pool of polluted water at a pile of discarded circuit boards in the slum town of Mandoli on the outskirts of Delhi. From the series "E-wasteland" © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved.

A boy looks out over a pool of polluted water at a pile of discarded circuit boards in the slum town of Mandoli
on the outskirts of Delhi. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved.

 

20 – 50 million tons of electronic waste, known  as “e-waste” is generated annually worldwide. In Europe and the US, we throw away an old computer, on average, every 2 years. In the US for every new computer bought, an old one is thrown away. Nearly one million tonnes of Waste Electronic and Electrical Equipment (WEEE) is discarded in the UK each year.

In Scotland, The Scottish Environmental Protection Agency (SEPA) are undertaking specific intelligence-led work targeting illegal waste operations that cause pollution and harm to the environment. The transportation and export of illegal electronic waste in HGV’s and the operation of illegal waste sites is being addressed jointly by SEPA and the police in order to tackle serious organised environmental crime.

Each year, thousands of tons of old computers, mobile phones, batteries, cables, old cameras and other e-waste are dumped in landfill or burned. Thousands more are shipped, illegally, from Europe, the UK and the USA to India and other developing countries for ‘recycling’.  Some is sent as scrap, some as charity donations. This isn’t just India’s problem, it’s the UK and Scotland’s problem. We are responsible for much of the illegal waste being sent overseas.

E-Wasteland: The growing problem of E-waste in India shows the effect of this toxic and illegal trade and documents the e-waste recycling industry in India. The project was shot in 2006 in four major Indian cities of Delhi, Bangalore, Mumbai and Chennai.

 

Electronic waste (e-waste) stored in a recyling yard in Bangalore, the IT capital of India. Like many of India’s cities Bangalore is generating thousands of tons of domestic e-waste every year. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved.

Electronic waste (e-waste) stored in a recyling yard in Bangalore, the IT capital of India. Like many of India’s cities Bangalore is generating thousands of tons of domestic e-waste every year. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved.

 

E-waste "cooking" in acid outside a home in Seelampur, Delhi. Scrap components are submerged in strong acid then heated. Gold plating gradually comes away and sinks, the acid solution is discarded and the gold is recovered. 30g of gold can be recovered from 1kg of e-waste. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved.

E-waste “cooking” in acid outside a home in Seelampur, Delhi. Scrap components are submerged in strong acid then heated. Gold plating gradually comes away and sinks, the acid solution is discarded and the gold is recovered. 30g of gold can be recovered from 1kg of e-waste. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved.

 

Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) storage in a backstreet recycling yard in Bangalore. The phosphor coatings of CRTs contains toxic heavy metals including cadmium & zinc, lead is used in the glass. Landfill and bad storage of e-waste can lead to ground contamination through toxin leaching, and can also cause harmful dust accumulation. Dust sample collected in various e-waste workshops by Greenpeace in 2005 show high levels of these toxic chemicals. This highlights the dangers involved not only with the breaking and burning of e-waste, but also with storage. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved.

Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) storage in a backstreet recycling yard in Bangalore. The phosphor coatings of CRTs contains toxic heavy metals including cadmium & zinc, lead is used in the glass. Landfill and bad storage of e-waste can lead to ground contamination through toxin leaching, and can also cause harmful dust accumulation. Dust sample collected in various e-waste workshops by Greenpeace in 2005 show high levels of these toxic chemicals. This highlights the dangers involved not only with the breaking and burning of e-waste, but also with storage. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved.

 

Since 2006, there has been an ever increasing demand for electronic goods. Two recent UN reports, published in April 2013, raise the alarming fact that as the worldwide demand for electronic goods increases, global metal needs could become almost ten times more than all the metals currently used in the world. Both reports suggest that manufacturers must act now, making products easier to recycle and the precious metals within them easily recoverable.*

Similarly a report, also published in April 2013, commissioned by the Gaia Foundation, estimates that 130 million mobile phones are thrown away annually in the United States. Collectively, they include almost 2100 tonnes of copper, 46 tonnes of silver and 3.9 tonnes of gold.**

 

A young worker in a backyard recycling yard in Shastri Park on the outskirts of Delhi. The highest exposures from these harmful and toxic chemicals are inevitably to the most vulnerable urban poor. The burning of plastics and metals, using acid treatments and breaking cathode ray tubes are all hazardous and polluting activities which take place with little concern for human health and safety and no consideration for the environment. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved

A young worker in a backyard recycling yard in Shastri Park on the outskirts of Delhi. The highest exposures from these harmful and toxic chemicals are inevitably to the most vulnerable urban poor. The burning of plastics and metals, using acid treatments and breaking cathode ray tubes are all hazardous and polluting activities which take place with little concern for human health and safety and no consideration for the environment. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved

 

E-waste containing lead, mercury and cadmium stored in a recycling workshop in Maya Puri, Delhi. The toxic metals contained in these switches and connectors will leach into the environment over time, causing ground, water and air pollution. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved

E-waste containing lead, mercury and cadmium stored in a recycling workshop in Maya Puri, Delhi. The toxic metals contained in these switches and connectors will leach into the environment over time, causing ground, water and air pollution. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved

 

Women separating copper in the backstreets of Seelampur in Delhi. Pb; Lead & Mg; Mercury are heavy metals which, when released either by burning or leaching, are bioaccumulative and extremely toxic in the environment. They can also cause irreversible harm to the human central nervous system and kidneys. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved.

Women separating copper in the backstreets of Seelampur in Delhi. Pb; Lead & Mg; Mercury are heavy metals which, when released either by burning or leaching, are bioaccumulative and extremely toxic in the environment. They can also cause irreversible harm to the human central nervous system and kidneys. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved.

 

India has become one of the world’s largest dumping grounds for e-waste. The problem is growing fast. E-waste is highly toxic. It contains lead, cadmium, mercury, tin, gold, copper, PVC and brominated, chlorinated and phosphorus based flame retardants. Many of these heavy metals and contaminants are extremely harmful to humans as well as to animals and plants.

 

Zayek 12, Anup Vihar, Delhi, “The fumes get worse at night time, sometimes it’s hard to breathe, you feel like you’re choking. A girl died here last year, she had asthma and one night the fumes were really bad, she choked, she suffocated. The people from my village have fought and argued with workshop owners and they’ve been to the police but the police are being bribed so nothing changes. It’s still really bad some nights. I don’t like living here, I moved here with my parents and sister and brother nearly 6 years ago. We’re from Gwalior, in Uttar Pradesh but there is no work there, we can’t afford to go back”. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved

Zayek 12, Anup Vihar, Delhi, “The fumes get worse at night time, sometimes it’s hard to breathe, you feel like you’re choking. A girl died here last year, she had asthma and one night the fumes were really bad, she choked, she suffocated. The people from my village have fought and argued with workshop owners and they’ve been to the police but the police are being bribed so nothing changes. It’s still really bad some nights. I don’t like living here, I moved here with my parents and sister and brother nearly 6 years ago. We’re from Gwalior, in Uttar Pradesh but there is no work there, we can’t afford to go back”. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved

 

E-waste stored in a home in the Christian Quarter of Chennai. The unregulated recycling industry in India takes place in thousands of extremely small, backyard workshops. Many of these locations are also people’s homes. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved.

E-waste stored in a home in the Christian Quarter of Chennai. The unregulated recycling industry in India takes place in thousands of extremely small, backyard workshops. Many of these locations are also people’s homes. © Sophie Gerrard 2006, all rights reserved.

The Basel Convention, of which the UK and India are signatories, bans the transportation of hazardous or toxic waste from the developed world to developing countries. This illegal toxic trade is, therefore, in direct violation.

 

“I worked on this project in India over a period of about 4 months in 2006. My initial expectations had been to find large industrial sized recycling yards of the scale I’d seen documented in China by artists such as Edward Burtynsky. When I reached India however, and visited the slums and recycling areas of the cities I discovered that the e-waste industry was far less obvious and much more hidden away. Sometimes the computer breaking and storage was taking place inside people’s homes. My research and searching took me from backstreet recycling yards, into slums, scrap yards, markets and houses. The men, women and children I met and photographed along the way working in this unregulated and illegal industry did so with no protection, in unsafe conditions and with no visible concerns for their health, safety or for that of the surrounding environment.”

 

E-wasteland was used as part of a Greenpeace International report on electronics and toxic waste. The project has been exhibited in the UK, Sweden, India and Singapore, it was awarded a number of international photographic awards and bursaries including a Jerwood Photography Award. For the full series and more information please visit www.sophiegerrard.com. You can purchase a Blurb book of E-wasteland on the Document Scotland publications page and limited edition prints from the series are available to buy through The Photographers’ Gallery. The series has been written about and featured in a number of photography blogs and articles including Conscientious by Jörg M. Colberg, Mrs Deane, LPA Blog.

You can see more of Sophie’s work on her website, her blog and you can follow her on twitter.

Sophie Gerrard

 

*UN Reports published April 2013 “Environmental Risks and Challenges of Anthropogenic Metals Flows and Cycles”which provides an overview of the environmental challenges of metals and the potential contribution of recycling to mitigate them, and “Metal Recycling – Opportunities, Limits, Infrastructure” which outlines improvements required to metal recycling systems in the 21st century.
** Gaiia Commissioned Report published April 2013 “SHORT CIRCUIT: The Lifecycle of our Electronic Gadgets and the True Cost to Earth” (2013) Author: Philippe Sibaud, co-authored by The Gaia Foundation, edited by Amy Woodrow Arai.

Did you like this? Share it: